RNA: Ribonucleic Acid
RNA Full Form
RNA full form stands for Ribonucleic Acid. It is a polymeric molecule essential in many biological functions in the decoding, expression of genes, coding, and regulation.
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids. In addition to fats, proteins and carbohydrates, nucleic acids constitute one of the four great molecules essential for all known forms of life.
Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or detecting and driving responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, which is a universal function in which RNA full form (Ribonucleic Acid) molecules direct protein synthesis on ribosomes.
This process uses transporter RNA molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA binds amino acids to form encoded proteins.
Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA, RNA exists in nature as a single-strand folded back on itself, rather than a double strand.
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA to transmit genetic information that directs the synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using the RNA genome.
It is a single-stranded molecule made up of ribonucleotides. Like DNA, it has three components:
Nitrogen base: It can be adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) or uracil (U).
Pentacarbon sugar: ribose.
Phosphate group: is attached to the 3 ‘position for one ribose and 5’ for the next ribose.
Comparison Of RNA with DNA
The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, but it differs in four basic ways:
- Unlike double-stranded DNA, RNA is a single-stranded molecule in many of its biological functions and is made up of much shorter chains of nucleotides.
- While the “sugar-phosphate backbone” of RNA contains ribose instead of DNA contains deoxyribose.
- Hydroxyl groups in the ribose structure make RNA more chemically alterable than DNA by reducing the activation energy of hydrolysis.
- The complementary base of adenine in DNA is thymine, while in RNA it is uracil, which is a non-methyl form of thymine.
What Is The Full Form Of RNA?
RNA full form stands for Ribonucleic Acid. It is a polymeric molecule essential in many biological functions in the decoding, expression of genes, coding, and regulation. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides.
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